A meta-analysis of empirical research on mobile learning (learning through mobile devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants, mobile phones and so on) published between 1993 and 2013 shows that the mean effect size for the application of mobile devices to education was moderate (0.523). The effect of mobile learning was found greater for handhelds than for laptops. Using mobile devices in inquiry-oriented learning showed better effectiveness than using them along with lectures, self-directed study, cooperative learning, and game-based learning. In informal educational environments, mobile learning was more effective than in formal environments. Medium to short term interventions were found more effective than long-term interventions.
Sung, Y.-T., Chang, K.-E., & Liu, T.-C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices with teaching and learning on students’ learning performance: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. Computers & Education, 94, 252-275. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.008
About the photo: Photo taken on flight to Sydney, filmed in 2017.